Basics in Microscopy

Knowledge in optics and contrasting methods is essential in understanding the fundamentals of microscopic imaging. Physical principals surrounding the operation of a microscope include resolution, numerical aperture, depth of field, image brightness, objective working distance, field of view, conjugate planes, and the useful magnification range. Contrasting methods like phase contrastmodulation contrastdifferential interference contrast, often aid scientist in visualizing living samples as these methods convert phase shifts into intensity. Staining and fluorescence techniques, like immunofluorescence or the use of fluorescent proteins, are used to make selected structures or proteins visible.

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